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Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention – Today’s story is about the “XSS” group. The group is known for cybercriminal attacks, especially XSS or “Cross-Site Scripting” attacks.

The team is currently in a large company called “Appliance Garden”. The company hired cyber security services startup “Cyber​​​​Warriors” to identify a security flaw, fix it and implement a defense strategy for the future.

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Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

Finally, the report must be sent to the technical manager of the “Appliance Garden”, so that he can organize the teams that will make the necessary improvements.

Xss: What It Is, How It Works, And How To Prevent It

Hear from the top developers of “Cyber” and “Appliance Garden” to co-author analysis, studies and reports.

➖ “Well, a Cross-Site Scripting attack occurs when malicious code (usually JavaScript) is injected into a web page to harm the end user, said security engineer Steve.

“But how can an attacker inject malicious code when we are hard-coded and can use well-protected servers,” asked the lead developer.

➖ “That’s a good question. So this code is usually inserted at the end of the URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) ​​​​as a parameter or by using a feature such as an input form, search field or comment input field,” said Steve answered.

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“Yes, if I understand correctly, a website or web application is vulnerable to XSS if it uses unauthorized or uncontrolled user input,” said the lead developer.

“Exactly, but not only!” replied Stephen. “XSS is also possible when displaying dynamic data received from the backend with or without scrubbing.” “

➖ “In fact, an XSS attack has three main forms: cached XSS, Reflective XSS, and DOM-based XSS,” says John, another security engineer. Let’s look at these examples together for better understanding:

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

🟩 Reflected XSS: occurs when an application receives data in an HTTP request and includes the data inaccurately in the response:

Under The Hoodie 2019: Security Lessons Learned From 180 Pen Tests

🟩 XSS Storage: A malicious script is stored on a vulnerable web server. The script injected into the web pages is then stored permanently and returned to any user who accesses the web page containing the script.

A common example of this type of attack is when an attacker posts a comment in a special forum:

🟩 DOM-based XSS: This attack is possible if the web application writes data to the Document Object Model (DOM) without proper sanitization. An attacker can change this information to inject XSS content into a web page, for example: malicious JavaScript code.

🔺 The attacker will also encode the URL of the payload so that it does not appear to contain the script.

Demystifying Website Hacktools: Types, Threats & Detection

🔺A DOM-based XSS attack often attacks the client side, and the payload is never sent to the malicious server. It’s even harder to detect for Web Application Firewalls (WAFs) and security engineers who scan every server that won’t see an attack.

It instructs the browser to parse and return that data. As a result, the browser will react to the embedded HTML code, potentially creating an XSS-based vulnerability at home.

“Thanks John, that’s very clear,” said the lead developer. “Now how can an attacker perform an XSS attack? What does the victim’s browser do knowing that the browser architecture is a sandbox?

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

“Oh, he can do very serious things!” John replied. Potential consequences of cross-site script attacks include:

Redline Is On Track, Next Stop

🔺 Login information is stolen, allowing the attacker to interact with the app as a victim without knowing their password.

OH GOD! This is happening to our customers!” said the lead developer. “All because of bad practices and a lack of control in the login areas!”

“However, I have one more question,” the lead developer added. “We use React as a technology in our frontends, and what we know about React is that it doesn’t render HTML code, but displays it as a plain string (text). How then is an XSS attack possible?”

“That’s a good question,” Steve said. “The answer to this wonderful question will be the subject of the next article. Sarah, our React application security specialist, will explain how to disable React’s default security layer after the coffee break.”

Tool Release: Magisk Module

“Before the break we talked about the most important points about React. Sarah, how can things work and how can we bypass security? Stephen called him.

➖ “Unlike vanilla HTML or jQuery, where code is essential, React is based on a declarative approach: we don’t manage the domain directly. But we specify “what we want to show,” and React specifies “how to update the domain,” Sarah added.

Imagine getting into a taxi and telling the driver where you want to go instead of telling him exactly where to go. It is the driver’s job to get you there; or maybe they’ll discover some shorts you hadn’t thought of! Respond to input with state – Respond

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

“This feature is very interesting; it eliminates a good percentage of possible XSS attacks,” said Steve.

Research] The 2020 Rapid7 Under The Hoodie Report Is Here

“By default, React DOM escapes values ​​embedded in JSX before rendering. This ensures that you never inject anything into our application that is not explicitly written. Everything is converted to a string before rendering, which helps prevent XSS (cross site prevent. – scripting) attacks)” Sarah added.

A home page currently under development will show a browser console warning, saying that future versions of React will prevent this behavior:

And here we open the problem: How can we safely delete React behavior in React? Of course not only

URLs to control or static data to control. Nor do we all have the same level of “world code” to fulfill declaratively.

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➖ “I suggest you look at the company’s React code together, Sarah, and when we find a vulnerability, you can explain it to us,” Steve suggested.

The hack code shown above is extremely insecure. Convert all HTML to data, regardless of whether the code is good or bad!

The code embedded in the HTML will be executed. A hacker can use this security hole to steal user data or perform actions for them!

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

DangerousSetInnerHTML: Form object with raw HTML string inside. Override the HTML property inside the parent node and display the HTML transition inside. It should be used with caution! If the HTML is internally untrusted (for example, if it relies on user data), you run the risk of introducing an XSS vulnerability. General (eg

) — React

Why Decision Makers Need Penetration Testing: Unveiling The Cybersecurity Landscape

Is a parameter type. In JavaScript, you can get an object by declaring or getting it.

Property When the parser sees this property, it will apply the given value as the HTML code of the rendered element!” Sara added.

Asked the chief engineer. I also found code snippets that use these APIs.”

“Another good question! And yes, these APIs can be exploited to inject malicious code. Let’s move on to the other side. We’ll look into this matter in detail,” Sarah replied.

The Hackers Playbook By Mirza Tariq

➖ “Essentially, as we’ve seen before, React abstracts away the details from the browser and provides a high-level API rendering component,” Sarah said. However, a higher level API is not always enough. In some scenarios, developers may need direct access to native host elements.

“React provides a Hatch escape that gives the app direct access to native dom elements. The problem with those escapes is that native dom elements are returned with the full API. These direct interactions can lead to XSS!” Sarah added. “

“Do not worry. After reviewing the code and identifying vulnerabilities, I will share more solutions,” Sarah added.

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

“Okay, thanks,” said the lead developer. “I have a question. So far we’ve only tracked HTML and JavaScript components. Does that mean CSS shouldn’t be included?

Jeenika A. On Linkedin: Github

CSS Any input will be evaluated as CSS. The problem is that they will appreciate any input, even if it’s not safe!” Sara said.

They have props that have a user-defined value. You must delete entries manually. Otherwise, malicious users can insert arbitrary information into other users’ pages,” added Sarah.

Although mentioned components allow you to use arbitrary input as interpolation, be careful that this input is not taken into account. Entering the user as a style can cause certain CSS to be evaluated in the user’s browser, which could inject an adversary into your application. components called: advanced ritual

Sara answered: Stay. “Now, I think we’ve gone through all the source code: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Do you think there’s anything left to stop?”

How To Exploit & Defend Against Cross Site Scripting Attacks

“You’re all trapped!” Sara said. “We only scan internal files. But the web application node needs some modules to work. Some of them may be old, some may be outdated, some may have security vulnerabilities.

Severity of the vulnerability, impact and exploitation of the vulnerability defined in the most common use case. Audit Reports npm Docs (npmjs.com)

“It’s time to identify solutions to various wounds. Here we go!” Sara said.

Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective Prevention

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    1. Demystifying Payload Xss: Tips For Effective PreventionFinally, the report must be sent to the technical manager of the "Appliance Garden", so that he can organize the teams that will make the necessary improvements.Xss: What It Is, How It Works, And How To Prevent ItHear from the top developers of "Cyber" and "Appliance Garden" to co-author analysis, studies and reports.➖ “Well, a Cross-Site Scripting attack occurs when malicious code (usually JavaScript) is injected into a web page to harm the end user, said security engineer Steve."But how can an attacker inject malicious code when we are hard-coded and can use well-protected servers," asked the lead developer.➖ "That's a good question. So this code is usually inserted at the end of the URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) ​​​​as a parameter or by using a feature such as an input form, search field or comment input field," said Steve answered.Popping Blisters For Research: An Overview Of Past Payloads And Exploring Recent Developments"Yes, if I understand correctly, a website or web application is vulnerable to XSS if it uses unauthorized or uncontrolled user input," said the lead developer."Exactly, but not only!" replied Stephen. "XSS is also possible when displaying dynamic data received from the backend with or without scrubbing." "➖ "In fact, an XSS attack has three main forms: cached XSS, Reflective XSS, and DOM-based XSS," says John, another security engineer. Let's look at these examples together for better understanding:🟩 Reflected XSS: occurs when an application receives data in an HTTP request and includes the data inaccurately in the response:Under The Hoodie 2019: Security Lessons Learned From 180 Pen Tests🟩 XSS Storage: A malicious script is stored on a vulnerable web server. The script injected into the web pages is then stored permanently and returned to any user who accesses the web page containing the script.A common example of this type of attack is when an attacker posts a comment in a special forum:🟩 DOM-based XSS: This attack is possible if the web application writes data to the Document Object Model (DOM) without proper sanitization. An attacker can change this information to inject XSS content into a web page, for example: malicious JavaScript code.🔺 The attacker will also encode the URL of the payload so that it does not appear to contain the script.Demystifying Website Hacktools: Types, Threats & Detection🔺A DOM-based XSS attack often attacks the client side, and the payload is never sent to the malicious server. It's even harder to detect for Web Application Firewalls (WAFs) and security engineers who scan every server that won't see an attack.It instructs the browser to parse and return that data. As a result, the browser will react to the embedded HTML code, potentially creating an XSS-based vulnerability at home.“Thanks John, that's very clear,” said the lead developer. "Now how can an attacker perform an XSS attack? What does the victim's browser do knowing that the browser architecture is a sandbox?"Oh, he can do very serious things!" John replied. Potential consequences of cross-site script attacks include:Redline Is On Track, Next Stop🔺 Login information is stolen, allowing the attacker to interact with the app as a victim without knowing their password.OH GOD! This is happening to our customers!" said the lead developer. "All because of bad practices and a lack of control in the login areas!”“However, I have one more question,” the lead developer added. “We use React as a technology in our frontends, and what we know about React is that it doesn't render HTML code, but displays it as a plain string (text). How then is an XSS attack possible?""That's a good question," Steve said. "The answer to this wonderful question will be the subject of the next article. Sarah, our React application security specialist, will explain how to disable React's default security layer after the coffee break."Tool Release: Magisk Module"Before the break we talked about the most important points about React. Sarah, how can things work and how can we bypass security? Stephen called him.➖ “Unlike vanilla HTML or jQuery, where code is essential, React is based on a declarative approach: we don't manage the domain directly. But we specify "what we want to show," and React specifies "how to update the domain," Sarah added.Imagine getting into a taxi and telling the driver where you want to go instead of telling him exactly where to go. It is the driver's job to get you there; or maybe they'll discover some shorts you hadn't thought of! Respond to input with state - Respond"This feature is very interesting; it eliminates a good percentage of possible XSS attacks," said Steve.Research] The 2020 Rapid7 Under The Hoodie Report Is Here"By default, React DOM escapes values ​​embedded in JSX before rendering. This ensures that you never inject anything into our application that is not explicitly written. Everything is converted to a string before rendering, which helps prevent XSS (cross site prevent. - scripting) attacks)" Sarah added.A home page currently under development will show a browser console warning, saying that future versions of React will prevent this behavior:And here we open the problem: How can we safely delete React behavior in React? Of course not onlyURLs to control or static data to control. Nor do we all have the same level of "world code" to fulfill declaratively.A Deep Dive Into Xxe Injection➖ "I suggest you look at the company's React code together, Sarah, and when we find a vulnerability, you can explain it to us," Steve suggested.The hack code shown above is extremely insecure. Convert all HTML to data, regardless of whether the code is good or bad!The code embedded in the HTML will be executed. A hacker can use this security hole to steal user data or perform actions for them!DangerousSetInnerHTML: Form object with raw HTML string inside. Override the HTML property inside the parent node and display the HTML transition inside. It should be used with caution! If the HTML is internally untrusted (for example, if it relies on user data), you run the risk of introducing an XSS vulnerability. General (eg ) — ReactWhy Decision Makers Need Penetration Testing: Unveiling The Cybersecurity LandscapeIs a parameter type. In JavaScript, you can get an object by declaring or getting it.Property When the parser sees this property, it will apply the given value as the HTML code of the rendered element!" Sara added.Asked the chief engineer. I also found code snippets that use these APIs.""Another good question! And yes, these APIs can be exploited to inject malicious code. Let's move on to the other side. We'll look into this matter in detail," Sarah replied.The Hackers Playbook By Mirza Tariq➖ "Essentially, as we've seen before, React abstracts away the details from the browser and provides a high-level API rendering component," Sarah said. However, a higher level API is not always enough. In some scenarios, developers may need direct access to native host elements."React provides a Hatch escape that gives the app direct access to native dom elements. The problem with those escapes is that native dom elements are returned with the full API. These direct interactions can lead to XSS!" Sarah added. ""Do not worry. After reviewing the code and identifying vulnerabilities, I will share more solutions,” Sarah added."Okay, thanks," said the lead developer. "I have a question. So far we've only tracked HTML and JavaScript components. Does that mean CSS shouldn't be included?Jeenika A. On Linkedin: GithubCSS Any input will be evaluated as CSS. The problem is that they will appreciate any input, even if it's not safe!” Sara said.They have props that have a user-defined value. You must delete entries manually. Otherwise, malicious users can insert arbitrary information into other users' pages,” added Sarah.Although mentioned components allow you to use arbitrary input as interpolation, be careful that this input is not taken into account. Entering the user as a style can cause certain CSS to be evaluated in the user's browser, which could inject an adversary into your application. components called: advanced ritualSara answered: Stay. "Now, I think we've gone through all the source code: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Do you think there's anything left to stop?"How To Exploit & Defend Against Cross Site Scripting Attacks"You're all trapped!" Sara said. "We only scan internal files. But the web application node needs some modules to work. Some of them may be old, some may be outdated, some may have security vulnerabilities.Severity of the vulnerability, impact and exploitation of the vulnerability defined in the most common use case. Audit Reports npm Docs (npmjs.com)"It's time to identify solutions to various wounds. Here we go!" Sara said.Validation of EnrollmentAngular Cheatsheet: A Quick Reference For Angular Developers
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