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Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web Security

Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web Security

Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web Security – Welcome to the Picus Labs monthly newsletter, the trusted place where you’ll find a comprehensive combination of the latest threat intelligence, cutting-edge security research and in-depth analytics, all in one convenient location.

Our comprehensive whitepaper, “Optimizing Threat Detection in Splunk: Strategies to Improve Performance and Effectiveness,” provides practical strategies to maximize your Splunk deployment.

Table of Contents

Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web Security

You’ll also get actionable information to help you overcome common challenges security professionals often face when implementing and managing identity rules in Splunk, including:

Common Risks To Api Security And How To Mitigate Them

At Picus Security, we are excited to launch our Cybersecurity 101 blog series. In these posts, we explain commonly used but often misunderstood cybersecurity terminology, including but not limited to the MITER ATT&CK Framework, Cyber ​​Threat Intelligence (CTI), attack. surface maintenance and more.

Our goal is to provide comprehensive insights to simplify cybersecurity while encouraging newcomers to enter this ever-evolving field.

This month, we delve into the world of APT attacks in our blog post “What is an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)?”

These sophisticated adversaries do not always demonstrate technological superiority, but their strength lies in their constant presence in hidden, targeted systems or networks, often state-sponsored. We examine infamous examples such as APT28 (Fancy Bear) and APT38 (Lazarus) with real cases. Our discussion expands on the role of state-sponsored APTs, shedding light on their diverse goals, from cyber espionage and financial gain to hacktivism and sabotage.

Technical Advisory: Stored And Reflected Xss Vulnerability In Nagios Log Server (cve 2021 35478,cve 2021 35479)

Click here to learn how the Picus Threat Library provides ready-made attack templates to simulate Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attack campaigns!

While MacOS is widely praised for its affordability, it’s important to remember that no operating system is immune to security threats. From malware and phishing attacks to data breaches and unauthorized access, macOS users need to be vigilant and proactively protect their systems and personal data.

Check out this blog for a closer look at macOS security and the world of protection layers offered by Apple.

Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web Security

On July 28, 2023, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued a security alert for a critical remote command injection vulnerability found in the Barracuda Email Security Gateway (ESG). CVE-2023-2868 is a zero-day vulnerability with a CVSS score of 9.8 (Critical) and has been exploited by Chinese cybercrime group UNC4841 since October 2022.

Why I Started To Learn More About Cybersecurity And The Threat Landscape In The Vast Digital

On June 20, 2023, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued a cybersecurity advisory regarding a critical vulnerability for active exploitation found in NetScaler (formerly Citrix) Application Delivery (ADC) and NetScaler Gateway products. The advisory warns of three vulnerabilities: CVE-2023-3466 (represents an XSS vulnerability), CVE-2023-3467 (elevation of privilege to root), and the most severe, CVE-2023-3519 (CVSS 9). An unauthorized remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability affecting millions of users worldwide. Many cybercriminals exploit this vulnerability to install web shells into vulnerable systems.

Click here to read detailed tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP) used by adversaries to exploit the latest Citrix vulnerabilities!

The cyber threat landscape is under the watchful eye of cybercriminals who are always looking to exploit vulnerabilities to their advantage. Microsoft recently reported an advanced phishing campaign by a threat actor known as Storm-0978. Specifically designed to exploit defense and government organizations in Europe and North America, this carefully crafted attack allows the powerful remote code execution vulnerability CVE-2023-36884 to compromise security. The vulnerability was cleverly exploited by decoy Word documents related to Ukrainian World Congress topics – before Microsoft discovered it.

On July 11, 2023, Microsoft Threat Intelligence discovered the activity of the Chinese threat actor Storm-0558 targeting the email systems of approximately 25 organizations. Operating separately from other Chinese groups, they focus on US, European and Taiwanese interests in many areas. Using the encryption key obtained for OpenID v2.0 tokens, Storm-0558 was able to spoof access tokens impersonating users to gain unauthorized access to Azure Active Directory applications. This sophisticated attack, which exploits a security issue in Microsoft’s OpenID token verification process, highlights their high technical skills and deep understanding of complex authentication protocols. Since its discovery in May 2023, Microsoft has mitigated the threat and hardened affected systems.

How To Implement Threat Modeling In Your Devsecops Process

On July 28, 2023, CISA released malware analysis reports on the exploitation of the Barracuda Email Security Gateway vulnerability. Reports indicate that threats have installed two backdoors: SEASPY and submarine backdoors. The SUBMARINE backdoor is an example of a sophisticated cyber espionage attack that exploits the inherent capabilities of a Linux system, reflecting the attacker’s deep understanding of the system architecture. This operation uses the Linux method of preloading shared objects, similar to sideloading DLLs in Windows, which changes the order in which libraries are loaded to favor loading malicious objects over legitimate ones, making detection more difficult. The attack basically manipulates the Batched Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (BSMTP) daemon, a part of Linux’s email infrastructure, to cleverly disguise the malicious activity as normal system behavior.

In July 2023, the Cl0p ransomware gang known as TA505 was very active, targeting many sectors that saw a significant increase in cyberattacks. The group exploited the CVE-2023-34362 SQL injection vulnerability in the MOVEit transfer, which led to the installation of a web shell called LEMURLOOT. This allowed the group to steal data and continue on a compromised system, focusing on data exfiltration from encryption-based attacks. Notably, the group’s anti-malware toolkit includes FlawedAmmyy/FlawedGrace RAT, SDBot RAT, Truebot, Cobalt Strike, DEWMODE, and LEMURLOOT, demonstrating the ability to act as a ransomware as a service (RaaS), early access broker, and root operator bot.

In July 2023, threat groups TA544 and TA551 launched high-profile attack campaigns targeting Italian organizations by deploying sophisticated WikiLoader malware. This multi-layered malware manipulates compromised hosts into revising obfuscated shellcodes via PHP, challenging security measures with sophisticated circumvention capabilities. Advanced obfuscation techniques, including busy loops, string encodings, and indirect systems, help make it invisible, thus making it harder to detect. Notably, the malware introduced a new stealth strategy to deliver the infamous Ursniff banking Trojan as a second-stage payload using the MQTT protocol, bypassing the need to communicate directly with compromised hosts. WikiLoader further complicates its operation by writing shellcode steps byte-byte through the NtWriteVirtualMemory API. This subtle mechanism allowed the Ursniff Trojan to be secretly injected and executed, exposing sensitive data. In 2017, OWASP identified injection as the most serious web application security threat for many organizations. In this tutorial, I will perform a cross-site scripting attack on a vulnerable web application using JavaScript. So what is this cross-site scripting attack?

Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web Security

“Cross-section scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of injection in which malicious scripts are injected into benign and trusted websites.” – OWASP

Top Cyber Security Jobs In 2023

There are two types of XSS attacks: perceived XSS and reflected XSS. A stored XSS attack occurs when a user-entered malicious script such as a database, message forum, guest log, comment box, etc. is stored on the target server. When a user visits a website, the server sends malicious code to the user. A reflection attack (also known as a persistence attack) occurs when a malicious script is reflected from a web server to a user’s browser. The script is executed via a link (clicked by an unsuspecting user) that sends a request to a website that contains a vulnerability that allows malicious scripts to run.

In this tutorial I will perform a cached XSS attack. I demonstrate this by placing a malicious script on the website that “steals” any visitor’s session cookies on the website and then hijacks the visitor’s session. The purpose of this tutorial is to emphasize how easy it is to hijack a user session on a website using cross-page scripting and the importance of authenticating data entry.

Why should we care when someone tries to steal cookies from website visitors? A cookie is a small piece of data sent by websites and stored by you as you browse the web. This includes information about how and when users visit the site, as well as site authentication information such as usernames and passwords. Authentication cookies are the most common method used by web servers to check whether a user is logged in or logged out. If the site does not have adequate security measures in place, an attacker can steal the cookie and use it to impersonate certain users and gain access to their accounts and information.

The first step is to find a vulnerable testing site that has an XSS vulnerability. I suggest using OWASP Mutilliday or DVWA (Dam Vulnerable Web Application). These projects were created to help security professionals test their skills and tools in a legal environment and to help web developers better understand the processes involved in securing web applications.

A Pentester’s Guide To Cross Site Scripting (xss)

I strongly advise against conducting any penetration testing on publicly accessible sites/organizations unless you have written permission to do so!

We use DVWA as ‘sacrifice’. Setting up DVWA is easy. You need a physical or virtual machine to configure. It’s faster and cheaper to install the VirtualBox hypervisor and install the Ubuntu image on it. If you do this

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    1. Navigating The Threat Landscape: Payload Xss And Web SecurityYou'll also get actionable information to help you overcome common challenges security professionals often face when implementing and managing identity rules in Splunk, including:Common Risks To Api Security And How To Mitigate ThemAt Picus Security, we are excited to launch our Cybersecurity 101 blog series. In these posts, we explain commonly used but often misunderstood cybersecurity terminology, including but not limited to the MITER ATT&CK Framework, Cyber ​​Threat Intelligence (CTI), attack. surface maintenance and more.Our goal is to provide comprehensive insights to simplify cybersecurity while encouraging newcomers to enter this ever-evolving field.This month, we delve into the world of APT attacks in our blog post "What is an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)?"These sophisticated adversaries do not always demonstrate technological superiority, but their strength lies in their constant presence in hidden, targeted systems or networks, often state-sponsored. We examine infamous examples such as APT28 (Fancy Bear) and APT38 (Lazarus) with real cases. Our discussion expands on the role of state-sponsored APTs, shedding light on their diverse goals, from cyber espionage and financial gain to hacktivism and sabotage.Technical Advisory: Stored And Reflected Xss Vulnerability In Nagios Log Server (cve 2021 35478,cve 2021 35479)Click here to learn how the Picus Threat Library provides ready-made attack templates to simulate Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attack campaigns!While MacOS is widely praised for its affordability, it's important to remember that no operating system is immune to security threats. From malware and phishing attacks to data breaches and unauthorized access, macOS users need to be vigilant and proactively protect their systems and personal data.Check out this blog for a closer look at macOS security and the world of protection layers offered by Apple.On July 28, 2023, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued a security alert for a critical remote command injection vulnerability found in the Barracuda Email Security Gateway (ESG). CVE-2023-2868 is a zero-day vulnerability with a CVSS score of 9.8 (Critical) and has been exploited by Chinese cybercrime group UNC4841 since October 2022.Why I Started To Learn More About Cybersecurity And The Threat Landscape In The Vast DigitalOn June 20, 2023, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued a cybersecurity advisory regarding a critical vulnerability for active exploitation found in NetScaler (formerly Citrix) Application Delivery (ADC) and NetScaler Gateway products. The advisory warns of three vulnerabilities: CVE-2023-3466 (represents an XSS vulnerability), CVE-2023-3467 (elevation of privilege to root), and the most severe, CVE-2023-3519 (CVSS 9). An unauthorized remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability affecting millions of users worldwide. Many cybercriminals exploit this vulnerability to install web shells into vulnerable systems.Click here to read detailed tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP) used by adversaries to exploit the latest Citrix vulnerabilities!The cyber threat landscape is under the watchful eye of cybercriminals who are always looking to exploit vulnerabilities to their advantage. Microsoft recently reported an advanced phishing campaign by a threat actor known as Storm-0978. Specifically designed to exploit defense and government organizations in Europe and North America, this carefully crafted attack allows the powerful remote code execution vulnerability CVE-2023-36884 to compromise security. The vulnerability was cleverly exploited by decoy Word documents related to Ukrainian World Congress topics - before Microsoft discovered it.On July 11, 2023, Microsoft Threat Intelligence discovered the activity of the Chinese threat actor Storm-0558 targeting the email systems of approximately 25 organizations. Operating separately from other Chinese groups, they focus on US, European and Taiwanese interests in many areas. Using the encryption key obtained for OpenID v2.0 tokens, Storm-0558 was able to spoof access tokens impersonating users to gain unauthorized access to Azure Active Directory applications. This sophisticated attack, which exploits a security issue in Microsoft's OpenID token verification process, highlights their high technical skills and deep understanding of complex authentication protocols. Since its discovery in May 2023, Microsoft has mitigated the threat and hardened affected systems.How To Implement Threat Modeling In Your Devsecops ProcessOn July 28, 2023, CISA released malware analysis reports on the exploitation of the Barracuda Email Security Gateway vulnerability. Reports indicate that threats have installed two backdoors: SEASPY and submarine backdoors. The SUBMARINE backdoor is an example of a sophisticated cyber espionage attack that exploits the inherent capabilities of a Linux system, reflecting the attacker's deep understanding of the system architecture. This operation uses the Linux method of preloading shared objects, similar to sideloading DLLs in Windows, which changes the order in which libraries are loaded to favor loading malicious objects over legitimate ones, making detection more difficult. The attack basically manipulates the Batched Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (BSMTP) daemon, a part of Linux's email infrastructure, to cleverly disguise the malicious activity as normal system behavior.In July 2023, the Cl0p ransomware gang known as TA505 was very active, targeting many sectors that saw a significant increase in cyberattacks. The group exploited the CVE-2023-34362 SQL injection vulnerability in the MOVEit transfer, which led to the installation of a web shell called LEMURLOOT. This allowed the group to steal data and continue on a compromised system, focusing on data exfiltration from encryption-based attacks. Notably, the group's anti-malware toolkit includes FlawedAmmyy/FlawedGrace RAT, SDBot RAT, Truebot, Cobalt Strike, DEWMODE, and LEMURLOOT, demonstrating the ability to act as a ransomware as a service (RaaS), early access broker, and root operator bot.In July 2023, threat groups TA544 and TA551 launched high-profile attack campaigns targeting Italian organizations by deploying sophisticated WikiLoader malware. This multi-layered malware manipulates compromised hosts into revising obfuscated shellcodes via PHP, challenging security measures with sophisticated circumvention capabilities. Advanced obfuscation techniques, including busy loops, string encodings, and indirect systems, help make it invisible, thus making it harder to detect. Notably, the malware introduced a new stealth strategy to deliver the infamous Ursniff banking Trojan as a second-stage payload using the MQTT protocol, bypassing the need to communicate directly with compromised hosts. WikiLoader further complicates its operation by writing shellcode steps byte-byte through the NtWriteVirtualMemory API. This subtle mechanism allowed the Ursniff Trojan to be secretly injected and executed, exposing sensitive data. In 2017, OWASP identified injection as the most serious web application security threat for many organizations. In this tutorial, I will perform a cross-site scripting attack on a vulnerable web application using JavaScript. So what is this cross-site scripting attack?"Cross-section scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of injection in which malicious scripts are injected into benign and trusted websites." - OWASPTop Cyber Security Jobs In 2023There are two types of XSS attacks: perceived XSS and reflected XSS. A stored XSS attack occurs when a user-entered malicious script such as a database, message forum, guest log, comment box, etc. is stored on the target server. When a user visits a website, the server sends malicious code to the user. A reflection attack (also known as a persistence attack) occurs when a malicious script is reflected from a web server to a user's browser. The script is executed via a link (clicked by an unsuspecting user) that sends a request to a website that contains a vulnerability that allows malicious scripts to run.In this tutorial I will perform a cached XSS attack. I demonstrate this by placing a malicious script on the website that "steals" any visitor's session cookies on the website and then hijacks the visitor's session. The purpose of this tutorial is to emphasize how easy it is to hijack a user session on a website using cross-page scripting and the importance of authenticating data entry.Why should we care when someone tries to steal cookies from website visitors? A cookie is a small piece of data sent by websites and stored by you as you browse the web. This includes information about how and when users visit the site, as well as site authentication information such as usernames and passwords. Authentication cookies are the most common method used by web servers to check whether a user is logged in or logged out. If the site does not have adequate security measures in place, an attacker can steal the cookie and use it to impersonate certain users and gain access to their accounts and information.The first step is to find a vulnerable testing site that has an XSS vulnerability. I suggest using OWASP Mutilliday or DVWA (Dam Vulnerable Web Application). These projects were created to help security professionals test their skills and tools in a legal environment and to help web developers better understand the processes involved in securing web applications.A Pentester's Guide To Cross Site Scripting (xss)
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